SINTESIS KARBOKSIMETIL KITOSAN TERHADAP PENGARUH KONSENTRASI NATRIUM HIDROKSIA DAN RASIO KITOSAN DENGAN ASAM MONOKLORO ASETAT

  • Helda Rahmawati Teknik Kimia , Politeknik Negeri Pontianak
  • Dodi Iskandar Teknik Kimia , Politeknik Negeri Pontianak
Keywords: chitosan, monochloro acetic acid, and carboxymethyl chitosan

Abstract

This study aims to determine the effect of NaOH concentration and the ratio of monocloro acetic acid with chitosan used in the synthesis process to the degree of substitution and solubility in water. Preparation of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCts) was carried out by various concentration of NaOH and ratio of monochloro acetic acid with chitosan. The concentration of NaOH used in the alkalination process were 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% (w/v). The ratio of chitosan: monochloro acetic acid used for etherification were 1:0,5; 1:1; 1:1,5; and 1:2 (w/w). Etherification was carried out at a temperature of 60°C for 2 hours. The results showed that the NaOH concentration of 10-30% (w/v) increased the substitution degree and solubility of produced CMCts. But at concentrations above 30% (w/v) the substitution degree and solubility were decreased. The ratio of chitosan : monochloro acetic acid also affect to substitution degree and the solubility of synthesized CMCts. The higher amount of monochloro acetic acid added to chitosan, the higher is substitution degree and the solubility of carboxymethyl chitosan synthesized in water. The best result was obtained when the ratio of chitosan : monochloro acetic acid were 1:2 (w/w). Within this ratio a 92.05% of yield was resulted with a solubility of 28.05 g/L and a substitution degree of 0.72.

References

Ardelean, E., Raluca, N., Doina, A., and Elena, B., 2009, Carboxymethyl Chitosan as Consolidation Agent for Old Documents on Paper Support. University ‘Al. I. Cuza’, Faculty of Theology. European Journal of Science and Theology. 5(4): 67-75.
Bader, H.J. and Birkholz, E., 1997, Teaching chitin chemistry. In Muzzarelli, R.A.A and Peter, M.G. (eds.). Chitin Handbook. European Chitin Society. p. 507-519.
Basmal, J., Andhita, D., dan Sediarso, 2005, Pengaruh Alkalinasi Selulosa terhadap Produksi Sodium Karboksimetil Selulosa. Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Indonesia. 11(4): 61-69.
Basmal, J., Prasetyo, A., dan Fawzya, Y.N., 2005, Pengaruh Konsentrasi Asam Monokloroasetat dalam proses Karboksimetil Kitosan terhadap Karboksimetil Kitosan yang dihasilkan. J. Penel. Perik, Indonesia. 11(8): 47-58.
Basmal. J., Prasetyo, A., dan Farida, Y., 2007, Pengaruh Suhu Eterifikasi pada Pembuatan Karboksimetil kitosan. Jurnal Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan. 2(2): 99-106.
Baxter, S., Zivanovic, S., and Weiss, J., 2005, Molecular Weight and Degree of Acetylation of High Intensity Ultrasonicated Chitosan, Food Hydrocolloids. 19: 821-830.
Champagne L. M., 2008, The Synthesis of Water Soluble N-Acyl Chitosan Derivatives for Characterization as Antibacterial Agents. Disertasi. Departement of Chemistry, Louisiana State University.
James, E. M., Harry R. A., and Robert, W., 1992, Inorganic Polymers, Prentice-Hall International, Inc., New Jersey. 14-17.
Kaban. J., 2009, Modifikasi Kimia dari Kitosan dan Aplikasi Produk yang Dihasilkan. Pidato Pengukuhan Jabatan Guru Besar Tetap dalam Bidang Kimia Organik Sintesis Universitas Sumatera Utara. Medan.
Lim, S., 2002, Synthesis of a Fiberreactive Chitosan Derivative and Its Application to Cotton Fabric as an Antimicrobial Finish and Dyeing-improving Agent. Disertasi. Department of Fiber and Polymer Science North Caroline State University.
Mourya, V. K., Inamdar, N. N., and Tiwari, A., 2010, Carboxymethyl Chitosan and its Applications. Government College of Pharmacy, India. Adv. Mat. Lett. 2010. 1(1): 11-33.
Murtini, J.T., Dwiyitno dan Yeni, Y., 2004, Pengaruh Perendaman Karboksil Metil Kitosan dan Kitosan terhadap Penurunan Kolesterol pada Cumi-cumi (Loligo sp.). Balai Besar Riset Pengolahan Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan. 3: 229-233.
Noerati, Radiman C. L., Achmad S., dan Ariwahjoedi, B, 2007, Sintesis kitosan Suksinat Larut Air, Akta Kimindo. 2(2): 113-116.
Oktavia, D. O., Wibowo, S., dan Fawzya, Y.N., 2005, Pengaruh Jumlah Monokloro Asetat terhadap Karakteristik Karboksimetil Kitosan dari Kitosan Cangkang dan Kaki Rajungan. Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Indonesia. 11(4): 79-88.
Sato, H., Mizutani, S., Tsuge, S., Ohtani, H., Aoi, K., Takasu, A., Okada, M., Kobayashi, S., Kiyosada T., and S. Shoda, 1998, Determination of The Degree of Acetylation of Chitin/Chitosan by Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography in The Presence of Oxalic Acid, Anal. Chem.. 70: 7-12.
Suryaningrum, Th. D., Basmal, J., dan Aumelia, W., 2005, Pengaruh Konsentrasi Asam Monokloro Asetat dan Jenis Pelarut Sebagai Bahan Pengendap terhadap Produksi Karboksimetil Kitin. Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Indonesia. 11(4): 89-100.
Zhang, Y., Xue, C., Xue, Y., Gao, R., and Zhang, X. 2005. Determination of The Degree of Deacetylation of Chitin and Chitosan by X-ray Powder Diffraction. Carbohydr. Res. 340: 1914-1917.
Zhao, Xue., Zhen Qiao, Z., and Xin He, J., 2010, Preparation of Chitosan Biguanidine Hydrochloride and Application in Antimicrobial Finish of Wool Fabric. Donghua University, Sung Yiang, China. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics. 5(3): 16-24.
Published
2014-02-01